There are 2 types of short leg deficiencies: Functional or Anatomical.
Anatomical means there is a structural anatomical shortening of one of the legs
Functional means there is a biomechanical imbalance, particularly in the pelvic, causing one leg to appear longer then the other.
In my clinical experience, most individuals have a combination of anatomical and functional leg length deformity.
The gold standard test to efficiently diagnose this condition is the anterior – posterior (AP) Pelvic X-ray analyses. This exam aids to precisely measure the level of leg discrepancy and to differentiate between the anatomical and functional types.
Clinical examination on its own is not sufficient to properly diagnose this condition
For anatomical leg length discrepancy, heel lift is advisable.
For functional leg length discrepancies, Specific Pelvic/Hip adjustment is enough to correct this deformity